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Studienbibliothek

48

Diagnose der Nicht-Zöliakie-Nicht-Weizenallergie-Weizensensitivität (NCGS) bei Patienten mit funktionellen gastrointestinalen Symptomen: Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen, randomisierten, doppelblinden, placebokontrollierten Studie mit Glutenprovokation.

Die Nicht-Zöliakie-Nicht-Weizenallergie-Weizensensitivität (kurz: Weizensensitivität oder NCGS) ist eine funktionelle gastrointestinale Krankheit, die durch gastrointestinale und extraintestinale Symptome gekennzeichnet ist, die nach dem Genuss glutenhaltiger Nahrungsmittel auftreten. Anhand der derzeit verfügbaren Bluttests und histologischen Untersuchungen kann eine NCGS nicht zweifelsfrei festgestellt werden. Primäre Grundlage des NCGS-Diagnoseverfahrens ist daher das Ansprechen auf eine glutenfreie Ernährung, wenn weder eine Zöliakie noch eine Weizenallergie vorliegt. Die Analyse der Reaktion potenzieller NCGS-Patienten auf Glutenkarenz kann neben der Wirkung anderer aktiver Substanzen in Weizen, z. B. Amylase-Trypsin-Inhibitoren (ATIs) und FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols), jedoch auch durch den Placebo-Effekt verzerrt werden. Eine korrekte Diagnose ist unerlässlich, um unnötige diätetische Einschränkungen zu vermeiden, wirksame Behandlungsoptionen bereitzustellen und den Bedarf an symptomlindernden Arzneimitteln bei funktionellen gastrointestinalen Beschwerden einschließlich Reizdarmsyndrom zu reduzieren.

Ziel dieser klinischen Studie war, innerhalb einer Patientenkohorte, die unter Glutenkarenz eine Verbesserung ihrer gastrointestinalen Symptome verzeichnete, Patienten mit NCGS zuverlässig durch eine doppelblinde, placebokontrollierte Glutenprovokation (DBPCGP) mit Cross-over zu identifizieren. Die klinische Studie wurde in 15 ambulanten gastroenterologischen Prüfzentren in Italien durchgeführt. 140 erwachsene Patienten, die regelmäßig gastroenterologische Ambulanzen aufsuchen und die Rom-III-Kriterien für funktionelle Magen-Darm-Störungen erfüllen, wurden in diese klinische Studie eingeschlossen. Alle Patienten ernährten sich glutenhaltig, testeten negativ auf Antikörper der Immunglobulinklasse IgA gegen Tissue-Transglutaminase (IgA-tTGA) und IgE-vermittelte Weizenallergie und hatten einen normalen Gesamt-IgA. Bei Patienten mit starkem klinischen Verdacht auf Zöliakie wurde zudem eine Duodenalbiopsie entnommen, um Patienten mit serologisch negativer Zöliakie auszuschließen.

Phase 1 der klinischen Studie untersuchte die Reaktion der Patienten auf Glutenkarenz. Zunächst erfolgte eine Beurteilung der Krankheitssymptome und der gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität anhand von Visuellen Analogskalen (VAS) (Skala von 1 bis 10) und dem Gesundheitsfragebogen Short Form 36 (SF36). Im Anschluss an diese erste Bewertung wurde für die Dauer von 3 Wochen eine glutenfreie Ernährung eingeführt. Dabei wurden die Patienten durch einen Ernährungsexperten umfassend beraten und unterstützt. Am Ende von Phase 1 füllten die Patienten die VA-Skalen und den SF36-Fragebogen erneut aus. Patienten, die eine signifikante gesundheitliche Verbesserung (VAS ≥ 3, n = 101) angaben, galten als ‚Gluten-Responder‘ und wurden in die zweite Phase der klinischen Studie eingeschlossen.

Diese Responder wurden aufgefordert, sich in Phase 2 (placebokontrollierte, doppelblinde Glutenprovokation mit Cross-over) weiter strikt glutenfrei zu ernähren. In diese Phase der klinischen Studie wurden 98 Patienten eingeschlossen (3 Patienten lehnten eine weitere Teilnahme aus Angst vor einem symptomatischen Relaps unter Glutenprovokation ab). Die Patienten wurden randomisiert in zwei Gruppen eingeteilt und erhielten 7 Tage lang 5,6 g/Tag Gluten (Kapseln mit aufbereitetem Gluten, entspricht 80 g getrockneten Nudeln) oder Placebo (Kapseln mit Reisstärke). Vor dem Cross-over erfolgte eine 7-tägige Auswaschphase, sodass Phase 2 der klinischen Studie insgesamt 21 Tage dauerte (während dieser Zeit ernährten sich die Patienten weiter glutenfrei). Im Anschluss an jede Phase (Glutenprovokation/Placebo, Auswaschphase und Cross-over), d. h. nach jeweils 7 Tagen, füllten die Patienten erneut die VA-Skalen und den SF36-Fragebogen aus. Insgesamt berichteten die Patienten unter Glutenprovokation über stärkere gesundheitliche Verschlechterungen als unter Placebo (p = 0,05). 28 der randomisierten Patienten reagierten ‚positiv‘ auf die DBPCGP (d. h. sie erlitten einen symptomatischen Relaps unter Glutenaufnahme) und 69 Patienten erwiesen sich als DBPCGP-‚negativ‘ (d. h. kein symptomatischer Relaps unter Glutenaufnahme). Ein Zusammenhang zwischen demografischen, klinischen oder biochemischen Faktoren und der Reaktion auf die Glutenprovokation wurde nicht festgestellt. Unter den als ‚positiv‘ identifizierten Patienten schien die Reihenfolge, in der die Gluten- und Placebokapseln eingenommen worden waren, keinen signifikanten Effekt zu haben. Bemerkenswerterweise wurden 14 von 28 ‚positiven‘ Patienten auch als Placebo-Responder identifiziert. Dies deutete erwartungsgemäß auf einen signifikanten Placebo-Effekt hin.

Insgesamt erlitten 14 % der 98 randomisierten ‚Gluten-Responder‘ einen symptomatischen Relaps während der verblindeten, placebokontrollierten Glutenprovokation (ohne gleichzeitiges Ansprechen auf Placebo) und konnten entsprechend als Patienten mit NCGS identifiziert werden. Dieses Ergebnis bestätigt, dass die Aufnahme von Gluten in einer Subgruppe von Patienten mit funktionellen Darmstörungen gastrointestinale Symptome hervorrufen kann. Dies ist die erste klinische Studie, die die Effektivität des zweistufigen Diagnoseprotokolls „Diagnosis of NCGS: The Salerno Experts‘ Criteria“1 in der klinischen Praxis untersuchte und beurteilte. Die hohe Anzahl von Patienten, die auf Glutenkarenz reagierten (75 %), jedoch nicht auf die Glutenprovokation nach Glutenkarenz, ist bemerkenswert. Diese Diskrepanz ist wahrscheinlich zum Teil einem möglichen Placebo-Effekt geschuldet. Viele Patienten könnten jedoch auch auf andere unspezifische Substanzen in Weizen reagieren, z. B. ATIs oder FODMAPs.


1 Catassi C, Elli L, Bonaz B et al. Diagnosis of Non-coeliac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): The Salerno Experts Criteria. Nutrients 2015; 7: 4966-4977.


Elli L, Tomba C, Branchi R et al

Resource: Nutrients 2016; 8: 84; doi:10.3390/nu8020084
Autor:
Elli, L; et al.;
Jahr:
2016 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

Systematische Übersichtsarbeit mit Metaanalyse: frühkindliche Ernährung und Zöliakie – Update 2015.

Ausgehend von den verfügbaren Beobachtungsstudien empfahlen wissenschaftliche Behörden (einschließlich ESPGHAN und EFSA) 2008, zur Senkung des Zöliakie-Risikos, die frühe bzw. späte Einführung von Gluten zu vermeiden und Gluten hingegen während der Stillzeit einzuführen. Diese Empfehlungen haben weiterhin Gültigkeit. Dieser Artikel bietet die ausführlichste Übersichtsarbeit zum Einfluss von frühen Ernährungspraktiken auf das Risiko unter gefährdeten Kindern, während der Kindheit Zöliakie zu entwickeln, und beinhaltet Daten von verschiedenen neuen Studien, darunter zwei umfassende randomisierte Kontrollstudien - die PreventCD-Studie und die CELIPREV-Studie.

Stillen und Zöliakie
Die PreventCD-Studie hat gezeigt, dass ausschließliches und beliebiges Stillen keinen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Entstehung von Zöliakie hat. Nach der CELIPREV-Studie war die Stilldauer bei Kindern, die Zöliakie entwickelten, ähnlich lang wie bei Kindern, die keine Zöliakie entwickelten. Jedoch war keine dieser Studien speziell darauf ausgerichtet, die Rolle des Stillens auf die Entwicklung von Zöliakie zu untersuchen. Die Gesamtergebnisse von fünf Beobachtungsstudien bestätigten diesen Befund, wobei große Unterschiede zwischen den Studien festgestellt wurden.

Stillen zum Zeitpunkt der Gluteneinführung und Zöliakie
Weder die PreventCD-Studie noch die CELIPREV-Studie haben gezeigt, dass Stillen zum Zeitpunkt der Gluteneinführung das Zöliakie-Risiko erhöht. Das Gesamtergebnis von sieben Beobachtungsstudien bestätigte diesen Befund. Zwischen den Beobachtungsstudien wurden große Unterschiede festgestellt.

Das Timing der Gluteneinführung und Zöliakie
Die PreventCD-Studie hat gezeigt, dass die Gluteneinführung ab der 16. Woche vs. die 24. Woche zu einem ähnlich hohen Zöliakie-Risiko nach 3 Jahren führt. Der CELIPREV-Studie zufolge führt die Glutenzufuhr ab dem 6. Monat vs. den 12. Monat zu einem erhöhten Zöliakie-Risiko nach 2 Jahren, nicht aber nach 5 Jahren. In den Beobachtungsstudien wurde bezüglich eines Zöliakie-Risikos kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen früher und später Gluteneinführung festgestellt, mit Ausnahme der ETICS-Studie, die eine signifikante Risikoerhöhung unter Kindern feststellte, bei denen Gluten ab dem 6. Monat eingeführt wurde, im Vergleich zu Kindern, denen zwischen dem 4.-6. Monat kleine Mengen gegeben wurden. Zwischen den Beobachtungsstudien wurden große Unterschiede festgestellt.

Glutenmenge beim Abstillen und Zöliakie
Die PreventCD-Studie hat gezeigt, dass die geringe tägliche Aufnahme von Gluten nicht mit der Entstehung von Zöliakie in Verbindung gebracht werden kann. Ergebnisse zu diesem Outcome waren jedoch nur für eine Teilgruppe der Teilnehmer verfügbar. Es handelte sich nicht um eine geplante Outcome-Studie, weshalb die Mengen zwischen verschiedenen Gruppen nicht verglichen wurden. Nur eine Beobachtungsstudie verglich die Menge an Gluten, die Kinder aufnahmen; bei Kindern<2 Jahren war das Zöliakie-Risiko höher, wenn Gluten in großen Mengen im Vergleich zu mäßigen oder kleinen Mengen eingeführt wurde. Die Mengen wurden jedoch nicht bezüglich der Gramme pro Tag quantifiziert. Bei älteren Kindern wurde kein Einfluss festgestellt.

Glutentyp und Zöliakie
Keine Interventionsstudie konnte den Einfluss des Glutentyps auf das Zöliakie-Risiko belegen. Eine Beobachtungsstudie hat gezeigt, dass der Typ der glutenhaltigen Nahrungsmittel keinen unabhängigen Risikofaktor für die Entstehung von Zöliakie darstellt. Nahrungsmittel wurden jedoch nur in „feste Nahrung“ (Brot, Plätzchen, Brei, Nudeln) oder in glutenhaltige Folgenahrung eingeteilt.

Gluten während der Laktation und Zöliakie
Die PreventCD-Studie hat gezeigt, dass die mütterliche Ernährung während der Schwangerschaft und Laktation keinen Einfluss auf das Risiko einer Zöliakie-Entstehung beim Kind hat.

Die Autoren dieser Übersichtsarbeit folgern daraus, dass das Timing der Gluteneinführung und die Dauer oder Fortsetzung des Stillens zum Zeitpunkt der Gluteneinführung das Zöliakie-Risiko nicht beeinflussen, zumindest während der Studiendauer. Die mütterliche Ernährung während der Schwangerschaft und Laktation scheint ebenfalls das Zöliakie-Risiko nicht zu beeinflussen. Die Daten zur Glutenmenge beim Abstillen und zum Zöliakie-Risiko sind nicht eindeutig. Es gibt kaum Daten zu dem Glutentyp, der während des Abstillens verwendet wird, und dem damit verbundenen Zöliakie-Risiko, wobei dies nicht als Risikofaktor gilt. Es konnten keine Studien gefunden werden, die darauf ausgelegt waren, den Einfluss von Ernährungspraktiken bezüglich des Zöliakie-Risikos von Kindern mit verschiedenen HLA-Typen zu untersuchen. Das hohe Vorkommen von Zöliakie bei Kleinkindern mit homozygoten HLA 2.5 legt jedoch nahe, dass Ernährungspraktiken bei Kindern mit hoher genetischer Veranlagung eine geringere oder überhaupt keine Rolle spielen. Diese aktualisierte Übersichtsarbeit bestätigt nicht die vorherigen Ergebnisse der Beobachtungsstudien, denen zufolge das Alter bei der Gluteneinführung und das Stillen das Zöliakie-Risiko beeinflussen. Daher wird auf diesem Gebiet eine Aktualisierung der aktuellen europäischen Empfehlungen benötigt.

Resource: Aliment Pharmacol and Ther 2015; 41 1038-105
 
Autor:
Szajewska, H; Shamir, R; Chmielewska, A; et al.;
Jahr:
2015 Juli
Sprachen:
Deutsch; Italiano; English; Español; Français;

Glutenunverträglichkeit grenzt das Spektrum des Reizdarmsyndroms ein: Eine doppelblinde, randomisierte, placebokontrollierte Studie

Ziel der Studie war es die Auswirkungen einer glutenfreien Ernährung auf gastrointestinale Symptome in einer Gruppe iranischer Patienten mit Reizdarmsyndrom (RDS) über ein doppelblindes, randomisiertes, placebokontrolliertes Versuchsdesign zu ermitteln.

148 erwachsene Patienten mit RDS, welche die Rom-III-Kriterien erfüllen, wurden zunächst von einer Privatklinik für Gastroenterologie in Teheran angeworben. Aus der Studie ausgeschlossen wurden Patienten bei denen eine Zöliakie oder eine chronisch-entzündliche Darmerkrankung diagnostiziert wurde, die in der Vergangenheit bereits eine gluten- oder weizenfreie Diät befolgt haben, die Medikamente gegen Depressionen oder Angstzustände einnehmen, die nichtsteroidale entzündungshemmende Arzneimittel einnehmen und die Elektrolyt- oder Schilddrüsenfunktionsstörungen aufweisen. Die daraus resultierende Patientenstichprobe, die sich für die glutenfreie Diät eignete, bestand aus 102 Patienten. 22 davon traten aus der Studie aus, da die Diät zu schwierig zu befolgen war. Weitere 8 Patienten empfanden die glutenfreie Diät als wohltuend, entschieden sich jedoch dafür den Versuch abzubrechen, da sie nicht ausreichend darauf vorbereitet waren, die Diät in angemessener Weise zu befolgen. Die übrigen 72 Patienten (19 Männer und 53 Frauen) führten den Versuch bis zum Ende durch. Die Patienten wurden nach dem Zufallsprinzip entweder der Gluten-Gruppe (35 Patienten, davon 6 Männer und 29 Frauen mit einem Durchschnittsalter von 44,5 +/-10 Jahren) oder der Placebo-Gruppe (37 Patienten, davon 13 Männer und 24 Frauen mit einem Durchschnittsalter von 43,2 +/-17 Jahren) zugewiesen. Es konnte keine statistische Differenz zwischen den beiden Gruppen im Bezug auf einen RDS-Untertypen festgestellt werden. Zu Untersuchungsbeginn füllten die Patienten einen visuell analogen Symptomfragebogen zur Ermittlung des primären Endpunktes aus. Dieser umfasste u. a. Blähungen, Bauchschmerzen, Erleichterung nach dem Stuhlgang, Übelkeit, Erschöpfung und allgemeine Symptome. Serummarker wurden für IgA anti-tTG, IgA anti-Gliadin und IgG anti-Gliadin Antikörper gemessen, eine HLA-Typisierung wurde für alle Patienten durchgeführt.

Alle 72 Patienten begannen daraufhin die 6-wöchige glutenfreie Diät, die von einem wöchentlichen Beratungsgespräch mit einem Ernährungsberater begleitet wurde, um die Einhaltung der Diät zu überwachen und zu unterstützen. Nach 6 Wochen wurde die Gluten-Gruppe beauftragt täglich 100g (2 x 50g) eines (FODMAP-freien) mit Gluten versetzen Pulvers einzunehmen, während die Placebo-Gruppe täglich 100g eines glutenfreien Pulvers (Reismehl, Maisstärke und Glukose) einnehmen sollte. Die Pulver wurden mit warmem Wasser gemischt und für weitere 6 Wochen täglich zum Frühstück oder zum Tee eingenommen. Alle Patienten führten die Diät für diese zweite 6-wöchige Phase der Studie fort.

Nach dieser 6-wöchigen Belastungsphase, traten bei 25,7 % der Gluten-Gruppe und bei 83,8 % der Placebo-Gruppe keine Symptome auf, was bedeutet, dass 26 von 35 Patienten in der Gluten-Gruppe symptomatisch auf die Glutenbelastung reagierten. Die Symptome stiegen in der Gluten-Gruppe innerhalb einer Woche nach Beginn der Glutenbelastung signifikant an, vor allem im Bezug auf Blähungen und Bauchschmerzen. Im Serum-Antikörper-Spiegel wurde nach der Glutenbelastung keine statistische Differenz festgestellt. Die Autoren dieser Studie folgern daraus, dass gastrointestinale Symptome bei vielen RDS-Patienten nach einem Ausschluss von Gluten verbessert werden können und weisen auf die Wichtigkeit der Unterscheidung zwischen Patienten mit RDS, die auf FODMAP-Einschränkung reagieren, und solchen mit Glutenunverträglichkeit hin. Dies ist vor allem deshalb von Bedeutung, da vermutet wird, dass eine FODMAP-arme Ernährung die Anzahl der günstigen Bakterien im Darm verringert (1,2). Die Autoren schlagen außerdem einen potenziellen Algorithmus für die Behandlung von RDS-Patienten, welche die Rom-III-Kriterien erfüllen, vor, wobei zuerst eine 6-wöchige glutenfreie Diät befolgt und später eine weitere Einschränkung der Kohlenhydrate bei Non-Respondern empfohlen wird.

1. Staudacher HM, Lomer MC, Anderson JL et al. Fermentable carbohydrate restriction reduces luminal bifidobacteria and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Nutr 2012; 142: 1510-1518
2. Halmos EP, Christopherson CT, Bird AR et al. Diet that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment. Gut 2015; 64:93-100

Resource: Nutrients June 2015; 7:4542-4554

Shahbazkhani B, Sadeghi A, Malekzadeh R et al
Autor:
Shahbazkhani, B; Sadeghi, A; Malekzadeh, R;
Jahr:
2015 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Diagnosis of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): The Salerno Experts’ Criteria

Abstract
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected by either celiac disease or wheat allergy. Given the lack of a NCGS biomarker, there is the need for standardizing the procedure leading to the diagnosis confirmation. In this paper we report experts’ recommendations on how the diagnostic protocol should be performed for the confirmation of NCGS. A full diagnostic procedure should assess the clinical response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) and measure the effect of a gluten challenge after a period of treatment with the GFD. The clinical evaluation is performed using a self-administered instrument incorporating a modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The patient identifies one to three main symptoms that are quantitatively assessed using a Numerical Rating Scale with a score ranging from 1 to 10. The double-blind placebo-controlled gluten challenge (8 g/day) includes a one-week challenge followed by a one-week washout of strict GFD and by the crossover to the second one-week challenge. The vehicle should contain cooked, homogeneously distributed gluten. At least a variation of 30% of one to three main symptoms between the gluten and the placebo challenge should be detected to discriminate a positive from a negative result. The guidelines provided in this paper will help the clinician to reach a firm and positive diagnosis of NCGS and facilitate the comparisons of different studies, if adopted internationally.

Resource: Nutrients 2015, 7(6), 4966-4977; doi:10.3390/nu7064966

Carlo Catassi, Luca Elli, Bruno Bonaz, Gerd Bouma, Antonio Carroccio, Gemma Castillejo, Christophe Cellier, Fernanda Cristofori, Laura de Magistris, Jernej Dolinsek, Walburga Dieterich, Ruggiero Francavilla, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Wolfgang Holtmeier, Ute Körner, Dan A. Leffler,Knut E. A. Lundin, Giuseppe Mazzarella, Chris J. Mulder, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Kamran Rostami, David Sanders, Gry Irene Skodje, Detlef Schuppan, Reiner Ullrich, Umberto Volta, Marianne Williams, Victor F. Zevallos, Yurdagül Zopf and Alessio Fasano
Jahr:
2015 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Small Amounts of Gluten in Subjects With Suspected Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

Die Arbeitsgruppe um Corazza hat eine randomisierte, doppelblinde, Placebo-kontrollierte Cross-over Studie durchgeführt. Untersucht wurden Probanden, bei denen der verdacht einer Glutenempfindlichkeit vorlag. Die Probanden erhielten eine niedrige Dosen von Gluten (4,375 Gramm pro Tag). Als Placebokontrolle diente Reisstärke. Beide Substanzen wurden als Kapseln gegeben, sodass sie sich in Aussehen und Geschmack glichen. Nach einer Woche der Glutenabstinenz wechselten die Gruppen. Die Wissenschaftler beobachteten, wie sich intestinale und extraintestinale Symptome bei den Patienten während des Untersuchungszeitraums änderten.

Bei den 59 untersuchten Patienten konnte durch die Gluteneinnahme eine signifikante Zunahme an intestinalen Symptomen, wie Blähungen und Schmerzen, beobachtet werden. Auch unspezifische Symptome, wie Gedächtniseinschränkungen oder depressive Verstimmungen wurden häufiger beobachtet.

Lesen Sie hier den original Abstract

Di Sabatino A, Volta U, Salvatore C, Biancheri P, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Di Stefano M, Corazza GR.
Jahr:
2015 April
Sprachen:
English; Deutsch;

Clinical effectiveness and economic costs of group versus one-to-one education for short-chain fermentable carbohydrate restriction (low FODMAP diet) in the management of irritable bowel syndrome.

The prevalence of IBS and the recent evidence for the effectiveness of the low FODMAP approach in the treatment of the condition has led to an increase in the demand for low FODMAP dietary exclusion. However the expansion of the dietetic workforce to cope with this increase and the intensive use of dietetic time for one-to-one education represents a potential long term obstacle to the widespread use of this approach. This research represents the first published evaluation of group education for the low FODMAP diet.

Patients were considered suitable for inclusion if they had been diagnosed with IBS by their primary care physician or gastroenterologist using NICE criteria, had organic disease ruled out and had been referred for dietetic advice. These patients were first offered a telephone consultation which lasted up to 15 minutes during which they were assessed for suitability to join a group session (brief assessment including symptoms, medical history and dietary intake). Those considered suitable were given a group appointment. Patients considered unsuitable for group education included those with atypical symptoms, complex health issues or language barriers, these patients were offered one-to-one dietetic appointments. Symptom type and severity, alongside stool frequency and form were assessed at base-line and at follow up by means of a questionnaire. Patients who did not attend follow-up were excluded from the study. Patients attending group sessions also completed additional questionnaires to assess the acceptability of group education.

The initial appointment for group sessions lasted approximately 90 minutes and included up to 12 patients. One-to-one sessions lasted approximately 1 hour. Follow up appointments (booked a minimum of 6 weeks later) were delivered using the same educational approach as at baseline (group or one-to-one). Data from 263 patients attending group sessions was compared to data from 101 patients attending one-to-one education. There was no significant difference between groups for IBS subtype at baseline. There was a significant increase in the proportion of patients reporting ‘yes’ to the global symptom question (‘do you currently have satisfactory relief of your gut symptoms’) following low FODMAP advice via both methods of education (18% at baseline versus 54% at follow-up for group education, and 5% at baseline versus 60% at follow-up for one-to-one education), with no difference at follow-up between the 2 methods. Patients had a significant decrease in composite symptom score following low FODMAP dietary advice, composite scores were not significantly different between the two methods of education at follow-up.

At follow-up, 93% of patients reported adherence to the diet at least 50% of the time. The majority of patients (87%) reported that the written information provided was easy to understand and 49% found the diet easy to follow. Following group education, 36% of patients would have preferred one-to-one education, with the remainder preferring group education (22%) or expressing no preference (42%). Most (81%) felt that group education had provided sufficient information to manage their symptoms without further advice. Unfortunately, non-attendance data was not reported in this study as the primary focus was symptom response (requiring those who did not attend follow up to be excluded from the evaluation). The cost of providing low FODMAP dietary advice was calculated as £67.19 per patient for group education (assuming 12 patients per group) and £139.20 per patient for one-to-one education. The cost of a QALY gain for this group pathway was well below the £20,000 to £30,000 threshold for UK healthcare costs.

In conclusion, this study shows that dietitian-led FODMAP group education is clinically effective and the costs associated with a FODMAP group pathway are worthy of further investigation.

Resource: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics (2015). 10.1111/jhn.12318

Whigham L, Joyce T, Harper G et al
Jahr:
2015 April
Sprachen:
English;

Systematic review: non coeliac gluten sensitivity

Background
Non coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a controversial emerging disorder. Despite reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten, NCGS remains a diagnosis based on the exclusion of coeliac disease, given the absence of reliable biomarkers.

Aim
To evaluate the prevalence, diagnostic exclusion of coeliac disease and the efficacy of a gluten-free diet (GFD) for NCGS patients.

Methods
A PubMed search was performed up to December 2014. According to consensus diagnostic criteria, NCGS was defined as self-reported gluten intolerance, negative coeliac serology and absence of villous atrophy. Studies evaluating the impact of a GFD on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were also included.

Results
Prevalence rates of NCGS (0.5–13%) differed widely. Seventeen studies, including 1561 patients (26 children), met the inclusion criteria for NCGS. HLA haplotypes could not be linked to histology [normal or lymphocytic enteritis (LE)] in 1123 NCGS patients. HLADQ2/DQ8 haplotypes were present in 44% of NCGS patients. After advanced diagnostic techniques in 189 NCGS patients combining LE and HLADQ2/DQ8 haplotypes, 39 (20%) were reclassified as coeliac disease. There was a higher than expected family history of coeliac disease and autoimmune disorders in NCGS patients. A GFD resulted in variable results for variable, but significantly improved stool frequency in HLADQ2 positive diarrhoea-predominant IBS patients.

Conclusions
Prevalence rates for NCGS are extremely variable. A subset of NCGS patients might belong in the so-called ‘coeliac-lite’ disease. The benefit of a GFD for NCGS patients is currently controversial. HLADQ2 positive diarrhoea- type IBS patients might gain symptom improvement from a GFD.

Resource: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 May;41(9):807-20. doi: 10.1111/apt.13155. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Molina-Infante J, Santolaria S, Sanders DS, Fernández-Bañares F.
Jahr:
2015 April
Sprachen:
English;

A Study Evaluating the Bidirectional Relationship Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Self-reported Non-coeliac Gluten Sensitivity.

Recent research indicates widespread use of a gluten free diet (GFD) amongst patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) with improvement of symptoms and disease course noted by the majority who embark on this dietary change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) in a cohort of British patients with IBD and conversely to determine the prevalence of IBD amongst individuals presenting with SR-NCGS. Three groups of patients attending the Royal Hallamshire Gastroenterology Clinic were enrolled in this study and asked to complete a validated questionnaire collecting demographic data and past/ current use of a gluten free diet; one group with IBD (n=145; 75 with Crohn’s disease and 70 with ulcerative colitis) and 2 control groups; one with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosed using Rome III criteria (n=59) and one group with dyspepsia, attending for endoscopy (n=109). SR-NCGS was defined as self-reported gluten sensitivity in the absence of coeliac disease. Current disease extent and severity amongst IBD patients was assessed using a validated questionnaire and medical records. Patients with IBS were the most likely to have SR-NCGS (42.4%), followed by IBD patients (27.6%) and dyspeptic patients (17.4%). 15.3% of IBS patients and 13.1% of IBD patients had tried a gluten free diet for the management of symptoms, versus just 1.8% of dyspeptic patients. The current use of a gluten free diet was recorded in 11.9% of IBS patients, 13.1% of IBD patients and 0.9% of dyspeptic patients. Diagnostic outcome data from 200 patients with SR-NCGS (in the absence of CD or wheat allergy) referred to the Royal Halllamshire between 2006 and 2013 was reviewed in order to investigate the prevalence of IBD in this group. 1.5% (n=3) of patients were found to have IBD.

No significant difference was found between patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in terms of prevalence on SR-NCGS and gluten free diet usage. However, IBD patients with SR-NCGS were significantly more likely to have stricturing disease (p=0.046) and more active disease (p=0.002) as measured by the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index score. This indicates that the presence of SR-NCGS may be a marker for clinicians of underlying severe/ structuring disease. The mechanism for the potential therapeutic effect of a gluten free diet in IBD is not well understood. The volume/ physical properties and ‘higher residue’ nature of gluten-containing foods may lead patients to avoid such products. It is also possible that an unidentified immunological mechanism may contribute to the relief experienced by patients choosing to reduce or eliminate their intake of gluten. The absence of diagnostic markers for NCGS mean it is unclear whether individuals with IBD who self-report gluten sensitivity are sensitive the gluten or other components of wheat such as mannans, amylase-trypsin inhibitors or FODMAPs. Further studies are needed to understand whether a gluten-free diet, or indeed a wider wheat free diet may be a valuable dietetic intervention in selected patients with IBD.

Resource: Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2015 Feb 24 epub ahead of print.

Aziz A, Branchi F, Pearson K, Priest J, Sanders D.
Jahr:
2015 März
Sprachen:
English;

Association between Coeliac Disease and Psoriasis: Italian Primary Care Multicentre Study

Summary

Coeliac disease is increasingly associated with extraintestinal manifestations, among these, several skin disorders have been reported, with dermatitis herpetiformis being the best recognised. Several studies investigating the possible association between CD and psoriasis have been published, however results have so far proven to be inconclusive and most of the data on the effect of a gluten free diet on psoriatic skin lesions are contained within case reports.

In this prospective multicentre study, the patient records from 19 Italian primary care practices were screened for confirmed cases of psoriasis, following this 219 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of psoriasis were enrolled in to the study (111 males, 51%; mean age 54 years), and 264 age and sex matched controls without psoriasis. The severity of psoriasis amongst subjects was assessed at base-line and follow up, in addition to gastrointestinal symptoms. Serum levels of anti-tTG were recorded for all subjects and if positive, CD diagnosis was confirmed by histology on biopsy. A total of 49% of the 218 enrolled patients with psoriasis reported one or more GI symptom, the most common being heartburn/ acid regurgitation (27%) and bloating (16%). Nine out of 218 patients with psoriasis showed positive serology for CD compared to only 1 out of the 264 controls (P=<0.05). Histology confirmed the CD diagnosis in all subjects with positivity to anti-tTG antibodies. All patients with psoriasis and CD adhered to a gluten free diet and completed the 6 month follow up. At 3 months, all 9 patients showed significant improvement in the severity of their psoriasis, this improvement was maintained at 6 months in all but 1 patient whose symptoms worsened.

This study shows a significant epidemiological association between CD and psoriasis in the Italian population. However, the small number of psoriatic patients with evidence of CD cannot be considered as definitive evidence of a causal link between the two disorders. The authors of this study hypothesise that the presence of shared genes (at-risk HLA haplotypes) often used to explain the greater prevalence of CD in several autoimmune disorders, might be present in subjects affected by psoriasis. In addition, CD-related malabsorption may affect psoriasis by causing a vitamin D deficiency status. It is well known that low levels of vitamin D pre-dispose to psoriasis, and that expose to sunlight and topical vitamin D preparations improve psoriatic lesions. Furthermore, an abnormal intestinal permeability common in untreated CD may increase the passage of different immune triggers. The fact that the majority of psoriatic subjects with positive CD serology showed complete villous atrophy is concordant with the hypotheses of vitamin D malabsorption and altered intestinal permeability to the passage of immune triggers.

Resource: Dermatology 2015 Feb 3.
 
Jahr:
2015 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

Coeliac Disease in Women With Infertility - A Meta-Analysis

The first indications of a link between female infertility and coeliac disease was first described over 40 years ago. However, contemporary studies have failed to reach a consensus on whether patients with infertility should be screened for coeliac disease. Many studies on this subject are small, are of poor design and/ or lack a control arm. This latest meta-analysis on the subject sought to assess whether women with infertility are at higher risk of coeliac disease. Studies excluded from the meta-analysis included those without control data, those where diagnosis of coeliac disease was based only on serology, and studies where exact data regarding the number of patients included was unavailable.  105 studies were identified as a result of the initial literature search, of these only 16 were suitable for study in detail, 11 of which did not meet the inclusion criteria, leaving just 5 for inclusion in the meta-analysis to calculate the odds of having coeliac disease in women with all cause infertility and unexplained infertility. Four further studies that had been excluded on the basis that they lacked a control arm were included for calculation of the pooled prevalence of coeliac disease in women with infertility. Studies that reported coeliac disease diagnosis based on serology but with incomplete biopsy data were all included for the calculation of pooled serological prevalence of CD in women with infertility (12 studies). The meta-analysis showed that women with infertility had a 3.5 times increased odds of having coeliac disease in comparison with that in the control population. Of 422 women with unexplained infertility across the five included studies, 14 were found to have coeliac disease, representing a 6 fold increase in the odds of having coeliac disease in comparison to the control group. When data from studies without a control arm were analysed, pooled prevalence of coeliac disease amongst 884 women with all cause infertility and 623 women with unexplained infertility was 2.3% and 3.2%, respectively. Pooled serological prevalence of coeliac disease amongst women with all-cause infertility and unexplained infertility was 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies have been suggested as a possible mechanism for infertility amongst women with coeliac disease. In this meta-analysis, 28.5% of infertility patients with coeliac disease had iron deficiency in the 4 studies that reported iron status. Among the 4 studies that reported folic acid status, none of the patients with infertility and coeliac disease were deficient in this nutrient.

Although this study makes a case for screening women with infertility for coeliac disease. The authors acknowledge that their work alone cannot be used to prove a causal relationship between coeliac disease and infertility due to the limitation of the study design of case control studies, the small number of studies available overall and the small sample sizes used within these. A recent large population-based study of infertility and coeliac disease in UK women suggested that women with coeliac disease (both before and after diagnosis) do not have a greater chance of clinically recorded fertility problems than women without coeliac disease*. However, the design of this study has it's own limitations due to reliance on primary care records, the known mis-diagnosis of coeliac disease and delay in recording this within medical records.

Resource: Dhalwani N.N, West J et al (2014) Women with celiac disease present with fertility problems no more often than women in the general population. Gastroenterology 147: 1267-74
 
Jahr:
2015 Jänner
Sprachen:
English;

A Retrospective Application of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Guidelines for Diagnosis of Coeliac Disease in New Zealand Children.

In 2012 the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) published an updated guideline for the diagnosis of Coeliac disease, proposing a non-biopsy based diagnostic approach for a proportion of symptomatic children where appropriate serology (tTG IgA level at least 10 times upper limit of normal and positive EMA) and 'at risk' genotype (HLA DQ2 or DQ8) was evident. This retrospective study aimed to assess the applicability of this guideline to children in New Zealand. Children less than 16 years of age investigated for coeliac disease with small bowel biopsy in between January 2010 and December 2012 were identified. The results of those with tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTG) levels greater than 50 units (10 times upper limit of normal), positive endomysial antibodies and HLA DQ2/DQ8 were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Data from 160 children was available: 70 had biopsy-confirmed Coeliac disease, and 90 had negative biopsies. Limited data relating to HLA DQ2/DQ8 testing precluded application of the guidelines to all patients. However, the isolated use of the anti-tTG antibody cut off of 10 times the upper limit of normal generated a sensitivity of 67% and moderately high specificity of 92%. Specificity increased to 97% when limited EMA and HLA DQ2/DQ8 data was added. data, levels above 50 units  and a specificity of 92%. Specificity increased to 97% when limited EMA and HLA DQ2/DQ8 data was added. A potential 67% reduction in the number of diagnostic biopsies performed would significantly reduce the work load and cost to the health system along with inconvenience and stress to families. However, it is important to avoid incorrect diagnosis of coeliac disease - if this current study is representative of the local population, up to three children out of every hundred investigated for coeliac disease could be falsely diagnosed. The limited amount of data was a major limitation of this study, therefore the value of the 2012 ESPGHAN guideline for the diagnosis of coeliac disease should now be evaluated prospectively.

Resource: International Journal of Coeliac Disease, Dec 2014 (vol 2; no. 4)
 
Autor:
Miller, W; Day, A;
Jahr:
2015 Jänner
Sprachen:
English;

Is gluten the great etiopathogenic agent of disease in the XXI century?

Abstract

Introduction: Gluten is a glycoprotein present in some cereals. The incidence of disorders related to gluten, including the EC, is increasing, even pathologies far from an etiology or treatment with GFD.

Aims: Review the scientific literature related to the ingestion of gluten and pathogenesis of different diseases.

Methods: A literature search in major scientific database.

Results: We obtained from the following diseases, gluten ataxia, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depressive disorders, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, dermatitis herpetiformis and epilepsy, studies in which either a determination of gliadin was referred or a treatment, with/without gluten, was applied and evaluated.

Conclusion: The ingestion of gluten seems to be related to disease, when there is no EC, SGNC or wheat allergy. Suspicions about the benefit of GFD as a complementary treatment is borne in semi-clinical trials and cohorts, either as a causal factor in the pathogenesis, or improvement of symptoms.

Resource: Nutr Hosp. 2014;30(6):1203-1210

Ismael San Mauro Martín, Elena Garicano Vilar, Luis Collado Yurrutia y María José Ciudad Cabañas
Jahr:
2014 Dezember
Sprachen:
English;

Causes of death in people with coeliac disease in England compared with the general population: a competing risk analysis

Abstract

Introduction:
Quantifying excess cause-specific mortality among people with coeliac disease (CD) compared with the general population accounting for competing risks will allow accurate information to be given on risk of death from specific causes.

Method:
We identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink all patients with CD linked to Office for National Statistics between 1998 and 2012. We selected controls by frequency matching from the registered general practice population within 10-year age bands. We calculated the adjusted cumulative incidence (including adjustment for competing risks) and excess cumulative incidence for different causes of death up to 10 years from diagnosis.

Results:
Of the 10 825 patients with CD, 773 died within the study period. The overall mortality rate among patients with CD was 128/10 000 person years compared with 153/10 000 in controls (HR=0.94 95% CI 0.84 to 1.01). We found no overall difference in the cumulative incidence of respiratory disease, digestive disease or cancer related death among cases and controls. The adjusted cumulative incidence of death from cardiovascular deaths was slightly lower compared with those without CD diagnosis (CD 0.32% vs controls 0.41%) with a corresponding excess cumulative incidence of −0.08% (95% CI −0.13 to −0.04). However, patients with CD had 0.15% excess risk (95% CI 0.03 to 0.27) of deaths from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from the general population baseline risk.

Conclusions:
Overall, people with CD have no major excess risk of cancer, digestive disease or respiratory disease related or cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. These findings should be reassuring to patients with CD and clinicians managing their care.

Resource: Abdul Sultan A, et al. Gut 2014;0:1–7

Alyshah Abdul Sultan, Colin J Crooks, Tim Card, Laila J Tata, Kate M Fleming, Joe West
Jahr:
2014 Oktober
Sprachen:
English;

Glycaemic index of some commercial gluten-free foods

ABSTRACT

Purpose
Gluten-free products present major challenges for the food industry in terms of organoleptic, technological and nutritional characteristics. The absence of gluten has been shown to affect starch digestibility, thus increasing the postprandial glycaemic response. However, in recent years, gluten-free technologies have been improved, thus possibly modifying this quality parameter. We investigated the glycaemic index (GI) of 10 commercial foods aiming to update the GI values of the most common gluten-free products consumed in Italy.

Methods
The in vivo GI was evaluated for six bakery products and four types of pasta. The postprandial glucose response was obtained in two groups with 10 healthy volunteers each.

Results
The overall GI values ranged from 37.5 for breakfast biscuits to 66.7 for puffed multigrain cake. Breads and pasta had GI values consistently lower than those previously reported in the literature.

Conclusion
The present study showed that several commercial GF products exhibited low and medium GI values, not confirming the previous observations on the high GI of GF. However, considering the multiple formulations and processes for preparation of these products, further studies are recommended.

Resource: Eur J Nutr. 2014 Oct 17.

Francesca Scazzina • Margherita Dall’Asta • Nicoletta Pellegrini • Furio Brighenti
Jahr:
2014 Oktober

Introduction of Gluten, HLA Status, and the Risk of Celiac Disease in Children

ABSTRACT

Background
The relationship between the risk of celiac disease and both the age at which gluten is introduced to a child’s diet and a child’s early dietary pattern is unclear.

Methods
We randomly assigned 832 newborns who had a first-degree relative with celiac disease to the introduction of dietary gluten at 6 months (group A) or 12 months (group B). The HLA genotype was determined at 15 months of age, and serologic screening for celiac disease was evaluated at 15, 24, and 36 months and at 5, 8, and 10 years. Patients with positive serologic findings underwent intestinal biopsies. The primary outcome was the prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity and of overt celiac disease among the children at 5 years of age.
 
Results
Of the 707 participants who remained in the trial at 36 months, 553 had a standard-risk or high-risk HLA genotype and completed the study. At 2 years of age, significantly higher proportions of children in group A than in group B had celiac disease autoimmunity (16% vs. 7%, P=0.002) and overt celiac disease (12% vs. 5%, P=0.01). At 5 years of age, the between-group differences were no longer significant for autoimmunity (21% in group A and 20% in group B, P=0.59) or overt disease (16% and 16%, P=0.78 by the log-rank test). At 10 years, the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity was far higher among children with high-risk HLA than among those with standard-risk HLA (38% vs. 19%, P=0.001), as was the risk of overt celiac disease (26% vs. 16%, P=0.05). Other variables, including breast-feeding, were not associated with the development of celiac disease.
 
Conclusions
Neither the delayed introduction of gluten nor breast-feeding modified the risk of celiac disease among at-risk infants, although the later introduction of gluten was associated with a delayed onset of disease. A high-risk HLA genotype was an important predictor of disease.

Resource: N Engl J Med 2014; 371:1295-1303October 2, 2014DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1400697

Elena Lionetti, M.D., Stefania Castellaneta, M.D., Ruggiero Francavilla, M.D., Ph.D., Alfredo Pulvirenti, Ph.D., Elio Tonutti, M.D., Sergio Amarri, M.D., Maria Barbato, M.D., Cristiana Barbera, M.D., Graziano Barera, M.D., Antonella Bellantoni, M.D., Emanuela Castellano, M.D., Graziella Guariso, M.D., Maria Giovanna Limongelli, M.D., Salvatore Pellegrino, M.D., Carlo Polloni, M.D., Claudio Ughi, M.D., Giovanna Zuin, M.D., Alessio Fasano, M.D., and Carlo Catassi, M.D., M.P.H. for the SIGENP (Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition) Working Group on Weaning and CD Risk
Jahr:
2014 Oktober
Sprachen:
English;

Randomized Feeding Intervention in Infants at High Risk for Celiac Disease

Background
A window of opportunity has been suggested for reducing the risk of celiac disease by introducing gluten to infants at 4 to 6 months of age.

Methods
We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary-intervention study involving 944 children who were positive for HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 and had at least one first-degree relative with celiac disease. From 16 to 24 weeks of age, 475 participants received 100 mg of immunologically active gluten daily, and 469 received placebo. Anti–transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were periodically measured. The primary outcome was the frequency of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease at 3 years of age.

Results
Celiac disease was confirmed by means of biopsies in 77 children. To avoid underestimation of the frequency of celiac disease, 3 additional children who received a diagnosis of celiac disease according to the 2012 European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition diagnostic criteria (without having undergone biopsies) were included in the analyses (80 children; median age, 2.8 years; 59% were girls). The cumulative incidence of celiac disease among patients 3 years of age was 5.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6 to 6.8), with similar rates in the gluten group and the placebo group (5.9% [95% CI, 3.7 to 8.1] and 4.5% [95% CI, 2.5 to 6.5], respectively; hazard ratio in the gluten group, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.91). Rates of elevated levels of anti–transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were also similar in the two study groups (7.0% [95% CI, 4.7 to 9.4] in the gluten group and 5.7% [95% CI, 3.5 to 7.9] in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.73). Breast-feeding, regardless of whether it was exclusive or whether it was ongoing during gluten introduction, did not significantly influence the development of celiac disease or the effect of the intervention.

Conclusions
As compared with placebo, the introduction of small quantities of gluten at 16 to 24 weeks of age did not reduce the risk of celiac disease by 3 years of age in this group of high-risk children.

Resource: N Engl J Med 2014; 371:1304-1315October 2, 2014DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1404172

Sabine L. Vriezinga, M.D., Renata Auricchio, M.D., Enzo Bravi, M.S., Gemma Castillejo, M.D., Anna Chmielewska, M.D., Ph.D., Paula Crespo Escobar, B.Sc., Sanja Kolacek, M.D., Ph.D., Sibylle Koletzko, M.D., Ph.D., Ilma R. Korponay-Szabo, M.D., Ph.D., Eckart Mummert, Ph.D., Isabel Polanco, M.D., Ph.D., Hein Putter, Ph.D., Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, M.D., Ph.D., Raanan Shamir, M.D., Ph.D., Hania Szajewska, M.D., Ph.D., Katharina Werkstetter, M.Sc., M.P.H., Luigi Greco, M.D., Ph.D., Judit Gyimesi, M.D., Corina Hartman, M.D., Caroline Hogen Esch, M.D., Ph.D., Erica Hopman, R.D., Ph.D., Anneli Ivarsson, M.D., Ph.D., Tunde Koltai, Ir., Frits Koning, Ph.D., Eva Martinez-Ojinaga, M.D., Chantal te Marvelde, B.Sc., Ana Pavic, M.D., Jihane Romanos, Ph.D., Els Stoopman, Vincenzo Villanacci, M.D., Ph.D., Cisca Wijmenga, Ph.D., Ricardo Troncone, M.D., Ph.D., and M. Luisa Mearin, M.D., Ph.D.
Jahr:
2014 Oktober
Sprachen:
English;

Systematic review with meta-analysis: associations between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
In the past decade, a number of population-based studies have examined the prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes but prevalences have differed considerably.

AIM:
To examine the prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

METHODS:
A systematic review of English-language articles published in PubMed Medline between 2000 and May 2014. Search terms included 'celiac disease' or 'coeliac disease' and 'diabetes mellitus'. Studies were selected with at least 100 individuals with type 1 diabetes being screened for coeliac disease where the coeliac diagnosis was later confirmed through small intestinal biopsy. Data synthesis used random-effects inverse variance-weighted models, and metaregression was used to examine heterogeneity in subgroups.

RESULTS:
A pooled analysis, based on 26,605 patients with type 1 diabetes, found a prevalence of biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease of 6.0% (95% CI = 5.0-6.9%). Heterogeneity was large (I(2) = 93.2%). The prevalence was lower in adults with type 1 diabetes (2.7%), and in mixed populations with both children and adults with type 1 diabetes (4.7%) than in children (6.2%) with type 1 diabetes (P < 0.001). Additional subgroup analyses could not explain the large variation in coeliac disease prevalence between studies.

CONCLUSION:
More than one in twenty patients with type 1 diabetes have biopsy-verified coeliac disease. This prevalence is high enough to motivate screening for coeliac disease among patients with type 1 diabetes.

Resource: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Nov;40(10):1123-32. doi: 10.1111/apt.12973. Epub 2014 Oct 1.
 
Jahr:
2014 Oktober
Sprachen:
English;

The New Epidemiology of Celiac Disease

Abstract

The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, but several reports have shown that CD is increasing in frequency in different geographic areas. The increase in prevalence can be partially attributed to the improvement in diagnostic techniques and disease awareness; however the equally well documented rise in incidence in the last 30–40 years cannot be so easily explained. The new epidemiology of CD is now characterized by an increase of new cases in the historical CD areas (northern Europe and the United States) and more interestingly in a spread of the disease in new regions (Asian countries). A significant change in diet habits, particularly in gluten consumption as well as in infant feeding patterns are probably the main factors that can account for these new trends in CD epidemiology.

Resource: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, July 2014 Volume 59
 
Autor:
Catassi, C; Gatti, S; Fasano, A;
Jahr:
2014 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Zöliakie: Zehn Dinge, die jeder Experte über Zöliakie wissen sollte

Zöliakie gewinnt sowohl in der Allgemeinbevölkerung als auch in der medizinischen Fachgemeinschaft zunehmend an Bekanntheit und Aktualität. Die Diagnosemöglichkeiten von Zöliakie haben sich im Laufe der Zeit verändert, jedoch herrscht große Unsicherheit bezüglich der Anwendung und Auswertung von Diagnosetests, deren Ergebnisse häufig durch die Einhaltung der glutenfreien Diät beeinträchtigt werden.

Die Experten Amy S. Oxentenko und Joseph A. Murray erläutern 10 wichtige Punkte, die man über Zöliakie wissen sollte. Diese basieren auf aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen und den Erfahrungen aus der Tätigkeit im Bereich der Zöliakiediagnostik an der Mayo Clinic.

Es gibt 10 Dinge, die jeder Fachexperte im Bereich Ernährung und Gastroenterologie über Zöliakie wissen sollte.

1. Die Bestimmung der Immunglobulin-A-Antikörper in der Gewebstransglutaminase (Tg-IgA) gilt als bester serologischer Test für die Erkennung von Zöliakie.

2. Zöliakie kann endoskopisch erkannt werden. Allerdings schließt ein normaler endoskopischer Befund eine Diagnose nicht aus.

3. Es wird empfohlen 4 Biopsien zu entnehmen (3x Pars descendens duodeni & 1x Bulbus duodeni), um eine möglichst genaue histologische Bestätigung der Zöliakie zu gewährleisten.

4. Es sollte in Betracht gezogen werden serologische Tests an Verwandten ersten Grades, Patienten mit Diabetes Mellitus Typ 1, Down Syndrom, Turner Syndrom und Williams-Beuren-Syndrom durchzuführen, ebenso wie an Patienten mit vorzeitiger Osteoporose, Eisenmangel, abweichenden Leberwerten und anderen Anzeichen für Zöliakie.

5. Patienten, die bereits langfristig eine glutenfreie Diät befolgen, sollten auf HLA DQ2 oder DQ8 getestet werden, um von der Notwendigkeit weiterer Untersuchungen bezüglich Zöliakie bei nicht allelischen Trägern abzusehen.

6. Die grundlegende Behandlung einer Zöliakie besteht in einer strikten lebenslangen glutenfreien Ernährung, die von einem erfahrenen Ernährungsberater begleitet wird. Alle Zöliakiepatienten sollten an einen Ernährungsberater überwiesen werden, der sich im Bereich der glutenfreien Ernährung gut auskennt. Richtlinien für Ernährungsberater sind verfügbar, um diese bei der Betreuung von Patienten mit Zöliakie zu unterstützen. Überlässt man den Patienten die Recherche über die glutenfreie Diät, kommt es nicht selten zu Fehlinformationen, wobei die Ernährung unnötigerweise eingeschränkt wird. Weitere praktische Hinweise, die ein Ernährungsberater geben sollte, beziehen sich u. A. auf die Vermeidung von Kreuzkontamination im Haushalt (z. B. separate Toaster oder Frischhaltedosen), Reise- und Restauranttipps sowie Tipps zu seriösen Informationsseiten im Internet. Außerdem ist es notwendig den allgemeinen Gesundheitszustand bei glutenfreier Ernährung zu überwachen, denn Fettleibigkeit, Diabetes und andere Begleiterkrankungen werden immer häufiger.

7. Neudiagnostizierte Erwachsene mit Zöliakie sollten auf Nährstoffmangel (Eisen, B12, Folat, Zink, Kupfer), Mangel an fettlöslichen Vitaminen (Vitamin D) und Knochendichte untersucht werden.

8. Alle Zöliakiepatienten sollten sich regelmäßig klinischen Nachfolgeuntersuchungen unterziehen, um die Wirkung und Einhaltung der glutenfreien Diät sicherzustellen.

9. Bei jenen, die anhaltende Symptome oder Rückfallsymptome aufweisen, sollte die ursprüngliche Diagnose noch einmal überprüft werden, nach möglichen verborgenen Glutenquellen gesucht und eine systematische Ermittlung alternativer oder mit Zöliakie verbundener Erkrankungen durchgeführt werden.

10. Patienten mit refraktärer Zöliakie sollten auf bösartige Entwicklungen untersucht werden.

Resource: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jul 19. pii: S1542-3565(14)01053-2
 
Autor:
Oxentenko, A; Murray, J;
Jahr:
2014 Juli
Sprachen:
Deutsch; English; Français; Español; Italiano;

Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
A low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) diet reduces symptoms of IBS, but reduction of potential prebiotic and fermentative effects might adversely affect the colonic microenvironment. The effects of a low FODMAP diet with a typical Australian diet on biomarkers of colonic health were compared in a single-blinded, randomised, cross-over trial.

DESIGN:
Twenty-seven IBS and six healthy subjects were randomly allocated one of two 21-day provided diets, differing only in FODMAP content (mean (95% CI) low 3.05 (1.86 to 4.25) g/day vs Australian 23.7 (16.9 to 30.6) g/day), and then crossed over to the other diet with ≥21-day washout period. Faeces passed over a 5-day run-in on their habitual diet and from day 17 to day 21 of the interventional diets were pooled, and pH, short-chain fatty acid concentrations and bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed.

RESULTS:
Faecal indices were similar in IBS and healthy subjects during habitual diets. The low FODMAP diet was associated with higher faecal pH (7.37 (7.23 to 7.51) vs 7.16 (7.02 to 7.30); p=0.001), similar short-chain fatty acid concentrations, greater microbial diversity and reduced total bacterial abundance (9.63 (9.53 to 9.73) vs 9.83 (9.72 to 9.93) log10 copies/g; p<0.001) compared with the Australian diet. To indicate direction of change, in comparison with the habitual diet the low FODMAP diet reduced total bacterial abundance and the typical Australian diet increased relative abundance for butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa (median ratio 6.62; p<0.001) and mucus-associated Akkermansia muciniphila (19.3; p<0.001), and reduced Ruminococcus torques.

CONCLUSIONS:
Diets differing in FODMAP content have marked effects on gut microbiota composition. The implications of long-term reduction of intake of FODMAPs require elucidation.

Resource: Gut. 2014 Jul 12. pii: gutjnl-2014-307264. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307264. [Epub ahead of print]

Halmos EP, Christophersen CT, Bird AR, Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR, Muir JG.
Jahr:
2014 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Risk of pediatric celiac disease according to HLA haplotype and country.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
The presence of HLA haplotype DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 is associated with an increased risk of celiac disease. In addition, nearly all children with celiac disease have serum antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG).

METHODS:
We studied 6403 children with HLA haplotype DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 prospectively from birth in the United States, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. The primary end point was the development of celiac disease autoimmunity, which was defined as the presence of tTG antibodies on two consecutive tests at least 3 months apart. The secondary end point was the development of celiac disease, which was defined for the purpose of this study as either a diagnosis on biopsy or persistently high levels of tTG antibodies.

RESULTS:
The median follow-up was 60 months (interquartile range, 46 to 77). Celiac disease autoimmunity developed in 786 children (12%). Of the 350 children who underwent biopsy, 291 had confirmed celiac disease; an additional 21 children who did not undergo biopsy had persistently high levels of tTG antibodies. The risks of celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease by the age of 5 years were 11% and 3%, respectively, among children with a single DR3-DQ2 haplotype, and 26% and 11%, respectively, among those with two copies (DR3-DQ2 homozygosity). In the adjusted model, the hazard ratios for celiac disease autoimmunity were 2.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 2.56) among heterozygotes and 5.70 (95% CI, 4.66 to 6.97) among homozygotes, as compared with children who had the lowest-risk genotypes (DR4-DQ8 heterozygotes or homozygotes). Residence in Sweden was also independently associated with an increased risk of celiac disease autoimmunity (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.25).

CONCLUSIONS:
Children with the HLA haplotype DR3-DQ2, especially homozygotes, were found to be at high risk for celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease early in childhood. The higher risk in Sweden than in other countries highlights the importance of studying environmental factors associated with celiac disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others.).

Resource: N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 24;371(4):390.

Liu E, Lee HS, Aronsson CA, Hagopian WA, Koletzko S, Rewers MJ, Eisenbarth GS, Bingley PJ, Bonifacio E, Simell V, Agardh D; TEDDY Study Group
Jahr:
2014 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Early nutrition: prevention of celiac disease?

Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. It is a chronic, multiorgan disease in which small-intestinal mucosal damage may lead to malabsorption of nutrients. In the last years, several studies suggested a protective role of breast-feeding and/or the timing and quantity of gluten introduction in the subsequent development of CD. Especially, prolonged breast feeding during the introduction of gluten-containing feeding has been associated with a reduced risk of developing CD in infancy. The focus of this review was to present the actual knowledge of the possible preventive influence of early nutrition on the risk to develop CD.

Resource: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Jul;59 Suppl 1:S18-20

Schaart MW, Mearin ML
Jahr:
2014 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Cognitive impairment in coeliac disease improves on a gluten-free diet and correlates with histological and serological indices of disease severity

SUMMARY

Background
Mild impairments of cognition or ‘Brain fog’ are often reported by patients with coeliac disease but the nature of these impairments has not been systematically investigated.

Aim
This longitudinal pilot study investigated relationships between cognitive function and mucosal healing in people with newly diagnosed coeliac disease commencing a gluten-free diet.

Methods
Eleven patients (8 females, 3 males), mean age 30 (range 22–39) years, were tested with a battery of cognitive tests at weeks 0, 12 and 52. Information processing efficacy, memory, visuospatial ability, motoric function and attention were tested. Small bowel biopsies were collected via routine gastroscopy at weeks 12 and 52 and were compared to baseline Marsh scores. Cognitive performance was compared to serum concentrations of tissue transglutaminase antibodies, biopsy outcomes and other biological markers.

Results
All patients had excellent adherence to the diet. Marsh scores improved significantly (P = 0.001, Friedman's test) and tissue transglutaminase antibody concentrations decreased from a mean of 58.4 at baseline to 16.8 U/mL at week 52 (P = 0.025). Four of the cognitive tests assessing verbal fluency, attention and motoric function showed significant improvement over the 12 months and strongly correlated with the Marsh scores and tissue transglutaminase antibody levels (r = 0.377–0.735; all P < 0.05). However, no meaningful patterns of correlations were found for nutritional or biochemical markers, or markers of intestinal permeability.

Conclusions
In newly diagnosed coeliac disease, cognitive performance improves with adherence to the gluten-free diet in parallel to mucosal healing. Suboptimal levels of cognition in untreated coeliac disease may affect the performance of everyday tasks.

Resource: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Volume 40, Issue 2, pages 160–170, July 2014
 
Jahr:
2014 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Coeliac disease: The debate on coeliac disease screening - are we there yet?

The majority of patients with coeliac disease are undiagnosed, leading to debate about the utility of screening. The heterogeneous clinical presentation, which includes asymptomatic forms, can partially explain the difficulties faced when identifying coeliac disease. Now, Kurppa and colleagues add another element to the debate by strengthening the arguments for general screening.

Resource: Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology Volume: 11, Pages: 457–458 201
 
Autor:
Catassi, C; Fasano, A;
Jahr:
2014 Juli
Sprachen:
English;

Diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease: guidelines from the British Society of Gastroenterology

ABSTRACT

A multidisciplinary panel of 18 physicians and 3 non-physicians from eight countries (Sweden, UK, Argentina, Australia, Italy, Finland, Norway and the USA) reviewed the literature on diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease (CD).
This paper presents the recommendations of the British Society of Gastroenterology. Areas of controversies were explored through phone meetings and web surveys. Nine working groups examined the following areas of CD diagnosis and management: classification of CD; genetics and immunology; diagnostics; serology and endoscopy; follow-up; gluten-free diet; refractory CD and malignancies; quality of life; novel treatments; patient support; and screening for CD.

Resource: Gut doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306578

Jonas F Ludvigsson, Julio C Bai, Federico Biagi, Timothy R Card, Carolina Ciacci, Paul J Ciclitira, Peter H R Green, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Anne Holdoway, David A van Heel, Katri Kaukinen, Daniel A Leffler, Jonathan N Leonard, Knut E A Lundin, Norma McGough, Mike Davidson, Joseph A Murray, Gillian L Swift, Marjorie M Walker, Fabiana Zingone, David S Sanders, Authors of the BSG Coeliac Disease Guidelines Development Group
Jahr:
2014 Juni
Sprachen:
English;

Potential Celiac Children: 9-Year Follow-Up on a Gluten-Containing Diet

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
Potential celiac disease (CD) is defined by the presence of serum anti-tissue-transglutaminase (anti-TG2) antibodies and normal duodenal mucosa. The major clinical problem is the management of asymptomatic patients and how to predict the development of villous atrophy. This prospective longitudinal cohort study describes the natural history of potential CD up to 9 years and explores risk factors associated with the development of mucosal damage.

METHODS:
Two hundred and ten potential CD children were eligible for the study; 175/210 asymptomatic children were left on a gluten-containing diet. Antibodies and clinical symptoms were checked every 6 months, and a small bowel biopsy was taken every 2 years to evaluate histological, immunohistochemical, and anti-TG2 deposits. Patients were genotyped for HLA and a set of non-HLA CD-associated genes.

RESULTS:
Forty-three percent of patients showed persistently elevated anti-TG2 level, 20% became negative during follow-up, and 37% showed a fluctuant anti-TG2 course with transiently negative values. At 3 years of follow-up, 86% of cases remained potential; 73 and 67% still had normal duodenal architecture at 6 and 9 years, respectively. Male sex, slight mucosal inflammation at time 0, and a peculiar genetic profile delineate a cohort of individuals who were prone to develop mucosal damage during time.

CONCLUSIONS:
A sizeable proportion of asymptomatic potential celiac patients showed fluctuation or negativization of antibody production, and many of these, with persistently positive anti-TG2, did not develop mucosal damage after 9 years of follow-up. Celiac population is a multivariate aggregate of individuals with different genetic and phenotypic profiles. Caution is required before prescribing a gluten-free diet for life to asymptomatic individuals with potential CD.

Resource: The American Journal of Gastroenterology 109, 913-921 (June 2014)

Renata Auricchio, Antonella Tosco, Emanuela Piccolo, Martina Galatola, Valentina Izzo, Mariantonia Maglio, Francesco Paparo, Riccardo Troncone and Luigi Greco
Jahr:
2014 Juni
Sprachen:
English;

Managing coeliac disease in patients with diabetes

Abstract

The association between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes has long been established. The combination of genetic susceptibility along with a potential role for gluten in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity makes defining gluten's role in type 1 diabetes extremely important. Evidence supporting the role of a gluten-free diet to improve complications associated with type 1 diabetes is not robust. However there is evidence to support improved growth, bone density and potentially the prevention of additional autoimmune diseases in patients with coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gluten free diet is expensive and challenging to adhere to in people already on a modified diet. Early identification of those who have coeliac disease and would benefit from a gluten-free diet is of utmost importance to prevent complications associated with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease.

Resource: Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014 May 9
 
Autor:
Leonard, M; Cureton, P; Fasano, A;
Jahr:
2014 Mai
Sprachen:
English;

Randomised clinical trial: Gluten may cause depression in subjects with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity – an exploratory clinical study

Summary

Background
Current evidence suggests that many patients with self-reported non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) retain gastrointestinal symptoms on a gluten-free diet (GFD) but continue to restrict gluten as they report ‘feeling better’.

Aim
To investigate the notion that a major effect of gluten in those with NCGS is on mental state and not necessarily on gastrointestinal symptoms.

Methods
Twenty-two subjects (24–62 years, five male) with irritable bowel syndrome who had coeliac disease excluded but were symptomatically controlled on a GFD, undertook a double-blind cross-over study. Participants randomly received one of three dietary challenges for 3 days, followed by a minimum 3-day washout before crossing over to the next diet. Challenge gluten-free food was supplemented with gluten (16 g/day), whey (16 g/day) or not supplemented (placebo). End-points included mental state as assessed by the Spielberger State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), cortisol secretion and gastrointestinal symptoms.

Results
Gluten ingestion was associated with higher overall STPI state depression scores compared to placebo [M = 2.03, 95% CI (0.55–3.51), P = 0.010] but not whey [M = 1.48, 95% CI (−0.14 to 3.10), P = 0.07]. No differences were found for other STPI state indices or for any STPI trait measures. No difference in cortisol secretion was identified between challenges. Gastrointestinal symptoms were induced similarly across all dietary challenges.

Conclusions
Short-term exposure to gluten specifically induced current feelings of depression with no effect on other indices or on emotional disposition. Gluten-specific induction of gastrointestinal symptoms was not identified. Such findings might explain why patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity feel better on a gluten-free diet despite the continuation of gastrointestinal symptoms.

Resource: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 39, Issue 10, pages 1104–1112, May 2014

S. L. Peters, J. R. Biesiekierski, G. W. Yelland, J. G. Muir1 and P. R. Gibson
Jahr:
2014 Mai
Sprachen:
English;

Celiac Disease or Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity? An Approach to Clinical Differential Diagnosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Differentiating between celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is important for appropriate management but is often challenging.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records from 238 patients who presented for the evaluation of symptoms responsive to gluten restriction without prior diagnosis or exclusion of CD. Demographics, presenting symptoms, serologic, genetic, and histologic data, nutrient deficiencies, personal history of autoimmune diseases, and family history of CD were recorded. NCGS was defined as symptoms responsive to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the setting of negative celiac serology and duodenal biopsies while on a gluten-containing diet or negative human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8 testing.

RESULTS: Of the 238 study subjects, 101 had CD, 125 had NCGS, 9 had non-celiac enteropathy, and 3 had indeterminate diagnosis. CD subjects presented with symptoms of malabsorption 67.3% of the time compared with 24.8% of the NCGS subjects (P<0.0001). In addition, CD subjects were significantly more likely to have a family history of CD (P=0.004), personal history of autoimmune diseases (P=0.002), or nutrient deficiencies (P<0.0001). The positive likelihood ratio for diagnosis of CD of a >2× upper limit of normal IgA trans-glutaminase antibody (tTG) or IgA/IgG deaminated gliadan peptide antibody (DGP) with clinical response to GFD was 130 (confidence interval (CI): 18.5–918.3). The positive likelihood ratio of the combination of gluten-responsive symptoms and negative IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP on a regular diet for NCGS was 9.6 (CI: 5.5–16.9). When individuals with negative IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP also lacked symptoms of malabsorption (weight loss, diarrhea, and nutrient deficiencies) and CD risk factors (personal history of autoimmune diseases and family history of CD), the positive likelihood ratio for NCGS increased to 80.9.

CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our findings, we have developed a diagnostic algorithm to differentiate CD from NCGS. Subjects with negative celiac serologies (IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP) on a regular diet are unlikely to have CD. Those with negative serology who also lack clinical evidence of malabsorption and CD risk factors are highly likely to have NCGS and may not require further testing. Those with equivocal serology should undergo HLA typing to determine the need for biopsy.

Resource: The American Journal of Gastroenterology 109, 741-746 (May 2014)

Toufic A Kabbani, Rohini R Vanga, Daniel A Leffler, Javier Villafuerte-Galvez, Kumar Pallav, Joshua Hansen, Rupa Mukherjee, Melinda Dennis and Ciaran P Kelly
Jahr:
2014 Mai
Sprachen:
English;

Incidence and Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis in the UK Over Two Decades: Population-Based Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
Few studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) nationally and regionally by time and age groups. Understanding this epidemiology is crucial for hypothesizing about causes and quantifying the burden of disease.

METHODS:
Patients with CD or DH were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between 1990 and 2011. Incidence rates and prevalence were calculated by age, sex, year, and region of residence. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) adjusted for age, sex, and region were calculated with Poisson regression.

RESULTS:
A total of 9,087 incident cases of CD and 809 incident cases of DH were identified. Between 1990 and 2011, the incidence rate of CD increased from 5.2 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.8–6.8) to 19.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 17.8–20.5; IRR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.7–4.8). The incidence of DH decreased over the same time period from 1.8 per 100,000 to 0.8 per 100,000 person-years (average annual IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94–0.97). The absolute incidence of CD per 100,000 person-years ranged from 22.3 in Northern Ireland to 10 in London. There were large regional variations in prevalence for CD but not DH.

CONCLUSIONS:
We found a fourfold increase in the incidence of CD in the United Kingdom over 22 years, with large regional variations in prevalence. This contrasted with a 4% annual decrease in the incidence of DH, with minimal regional variations in prevalence. These contrasts could reflect differences in diagnosis between CD (serological diagnosis and case finding) and DH (symptomatic presentation) or the possibility that diagnosing and treating CD prevents the development of DH.

Resource: Am J Gastroenterol. May 2014
 
Autor:
West, J; Fleming, K; Tata, L; et al.;
Jahr:
2014 Mai
Sprachen:
English;

Characterization of Adults With a Self-Diagnosis of Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity

Abstract

Background: Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), occurring in patients without celiac disease yet whose gastrointestinal symptoms improve on a gluten-free diet (GFD), is largely a self-reported diagnosis and would appear to be very common. The aims of this study were to characterize patients who believe they have NCGS.

Materials and Methods: Advertising was directed toward adults who believed they had NCGS and were willing to participate in a clinical trial. Respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire about symptoms, diet, and celiac investigation.

Results: Of 248 respondents, 147 completed the survey. Mean age was 43.5 years, and 130 were women. Seventy-two percent did not meet the description of NCGS due to inadequate exclusion of celiac disease (62%), uncontrolled symptoms despite gluten restriction (24%), and not following a GFD (27%), alone or in combination. The GFD was self-initiated in 44% of respondents; in other respondents it was prescribed by alternative health professionals (21%), dietitians (19%), and general practitioners (16%). No celiac investigations had been performed in 15% of respondents. Of 75 respondents who had duodenal biopsies, 29% had no or inadequate gluten intake at the time of endoscopy. Inadequate celiac investigation was common if the GFD was initiated by self (69%), alternative health professionals (70%), general practitioners (46%), or dietitians (43%). In 40 respondents who fulfilled the criteria for NCGS, their knowledge of and adherence to the GFD were excellent, and 65% identified other food intolerances.

Conclusions: Just over 1 in 4 respondents self-reporting as NCGS fulfill criteria for its diagnosis. Initiation of a GFD without adequate exclusion of celiac disease is common. In 1 of 4 respondents, symptoms are poorly controlled despite gluten avoidance.

Resource: Nutr Clin Pract April 16, 2014

Jessica R. Biesiekierski, PhD, RN, Evan D. Newnham , MD, FRACP, Susan J. Shepherd, PhD, APD, Jane G. Muir, PhD, APD, Peter R. Gibson, MD, FRACP
Jahr:
2014 April
Sprachen:
English;

Serological Assessment for Celiac Disease in IgA Deficient Adults

Abstract

Purpose: Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency disorder that is strongly overrepresented among patients with celiac disease (CD). IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP) serve as serological markers for CD in IgA deficient individuals, although the diagnostic value remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of these markers in a large cohort of IgA deficient adults with confirmed or suspected CD and relate the findings to gluten free diet.

Methods: Sera from 488,156 individuals were screened for CD in seven Swedish clinical immunology laboratories between 1998 and 2012. In total, 356 out of 1,414 identified IgA deficient adults agreed to participate in this study and were resampled. Forty-seven IgA deficient blood donors served as controls. Analyses of IgG antibodies against tTG and DGP as well as HLA typing were performed and a questionnaire was used to investigate adherence to gluten free diet. Available biopsy results were collected.

Results: Out of the 356 IgA deficient resampled adults, 67 (18.8%) were positive for IgG anti-tTG and 79 (22.2%) for IgG anti-DGP, 54 had biopsy confirmed CD. Among the 47 IgA deficient blood donors, 4 (9%) were positive for IgG anti-tTG and 8 (17%) for anti-DGP. Four were diagnosed with biopsy verified CD, however, 2 of the patients were negative for all markers. Sixty-eight of 69 individuals with positive IgG anti-tTG were HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive whereas 7 (18.9%) of the 37 individuals positive for IgG anti-DGP alone were not.

Conclusions: IgG anti-tTG seems to be a more reliable marker for CD in IgA deficient adults whereas the diagnostic specificity of anti-DGP appears to be lower. High levels of IgG antibodies against tTG and DGP were frequently found in IgA deficient adults despite adhering to gluten free diet.

Resource: PLOS ONE, 9 April 2014, Vol 9, Issue 4 (www.plosone.org)
 
Autor:
Wang, N; Truedsson, L; Elvin, K; et al.;
Jahr:
2014 April
Sprachen:
English;

Psyllium as a substitute for gluten in pastas

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of replacing gluten in favor of psyllium in pasta’s characteristics. This study takes an exploratory and quantitative approach and was sub-divided into four steps: selection and development of recipes and chemical and sensorial analysis. Modified samples of the pasta presented 100.0% of acceptance for individuals with celiac disease and up to 94.0% for individuals without celiac disease. The most affected characteristics were odor and texture. In terms of chemical composition, reduction of energy value was 26.5% and of proportional fat was 85.4% before being cooked. Substituting wheat flour for a mixture of gluten-free flours with psyllium did not alter preference or acceptability of modified products in relation to standardized ones and amplified feeding options for celiac disease patients. Thus, there were no damages in sensorial characteristics of these products.

Resource: Journal of Culinary Science & Technology Volume 12, Issue 2, 2014

Renata Puppin Zandonadi, Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho and Wilma Maria Coelho Araújo
Jahr:
2014 März
Sprachen:
English;

Coeliac Patients Are Undiagnosed at Routine Upper Endoscopy

Abstract

Background and Aims
Two out of three patients with Coeliac Disease (CD) in Australia are undiagnosed. This prospective clinical audit aimed to determine how many CD patients would be undiagnosed if duodenal biopsy had only been performed if the mucosa looked abnormal or the patient presented with typical CD symptoms.

Methods
All eligible patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (OGD) in a regional center from 2004–2009 underwent prospective analysis of presenting symptoms and duodenal biopsy. Clinical presentations were defined as either Major (diarrhea, weight loss, iron deficiency, CD family history or positive celiac antibodies- Ab) or Minor Clinical Indicators (CI) to duodenal biopsy (atypical symptoms). Newly diagnosed CD patients had follow up celiac antibody testing.

Results
Thirty-five (1.4%) new cases of CD were identified in the 2,559 patients biopsied at upper endoscopy. Almost a quarter (23%) of cases presented with atypical symptoms. There was an inverse relationship between presentation with Major CI’s and increasing age (<16, 16–59 and >60: 100%, 81% and 50% respectively, p = 0.03); 28% of newly diagnosed CD patients were aged over 60 years. Endoscopic appearance was a useful diagnostic tool in only 51% (18/35) of CD patients. Coeliac antibodies were positive in 34/35 CD patients (sensitivity 97%).

Conclusions
Almost one quarter of new cases of CD presented with atypical symptoms and half of the new cases had unremarkable duodenal mucosa. At least 10% of new cases of celiac disease are likely to be undiagnosed at routine upper endoscopy, particularly patients over 60 years who more commonly present atypically. All new CD patients could be identified in this study by performing pre-operative celiac antibody testing on all patients presenting for OGD and proceeding to biopsy only positive antibody patients and those presenting with either Major CI or abnormal duodenal mucosa for an estimated cost of AUS$4,629 and AUS$3,710 respectively.

Resource: PLOS ONE, March 2014, Vol 9, Issue 3 (www.plosone.org)
 
Autor:
Robson, K; Alizart, M; Martin, J; et al.;
Jahr:
2014 März
Sprachen:
English;

Coeliac disease

Summary points

Adult coeliac disease is a common autoimmune condition with an estimated prevalence of 1%. Test for coeliac disease in patients with unexplained anaemia, weight loss, diarrhoea, or gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly irritable bowel syndrome, and in first degree relatives of index cases. Confirm the diagnosis with duodenal biopsy in all adult patients. Treatment with a lifelong strict gluten-free diet is currently the only treatment of known effectiveness. Patients should have access to an expert dietitian for advice on a gluten-free diet and for assessment of adherence if symptoms persist on institution of the diet. Regular follow-up is necessary to assess adherence and micronutrient deficiency.
 
Coeliac disease is a common autoimmune condition characterised by a heightened immunological response to ingested gluten, with estimated prevalence rates in adults of 0.2-1% in the United States and Europe. Contemporary studies suggest that the prevalence of this disease is increasing.3 4 5 Meta-analyses have shown that for every patient identified as having coeliac disease seven to eight remain undiagnosed. Here, we will summarise recent evidence on how the investigation and diagnosis of coeliac disease can be improved and also provide an evidence based approach to managing patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease and those who do not respond to a gluten-free diet as expected. Evidence is taken from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomised controlled trials where possible.
 
Sources and selection criteria
We searched Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with the search terms “coeliac disease” or “celiac disease”. Studies included those in adult and paediatric populations but preference was given to adult studies in the past five years. We focused on meta-analyses and systematic reviews where possible.
 
Who gets coeliac disease?
In the past coeliac disease was considered to be a disease that affects white populations only, but it is now clear that coeliac disease is a global problem. Clinicians in …

Resource: BMJ 2014; (Published 3 March 2014)

Peter D Mooney, clinical research fellow gastroenterology, Marios Hadjivassiliou, professor of neurology and NHS consultant, David S Sanders, professor of gastroenterology and NHS consultant
Jahr:
2014 März
Sprachen:
English;

Persistent mucosal damage and risk of fracture in celiac disease.

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT:
Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased fracture risk, an increase that persists after diagnosis. A significant proportion of patients with CD have persistent villous atrophy (VA) on follow-up biopsy.

OBJECTIVE:
The objective of the study was to determine whether persistent VA impacts long-term fracture risk.

DESIGN:
This was a cohort study.

SETTING AND PATIENTS:
We identified all patients in Sweden with histological evidence of CD who underwent a follow-up biopsy and compared patients with persistent VA with those with mucosal healing.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The following were measured: 1) any fracture; 2) likely osteoporotic fracture (defined as fractures of the hip, distal forearm, thoracic and lumbar spine, or proximal humerus); and 3) hip fracture.

RESULTS:
Of 7146 patients, VA was present on follow-up biopsy in 43%. There was no significant association between persistent VA and overall fractures [hazard ratio (HR) of persistent VA compared with those with healing 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.06] or with likely osteoporotic fractures (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.84-1.46). Persistent VA was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.05-2.66). Hip fracture risk increased, depending on the degree of VA (HR for partial VA compared with those with healing 1.70, 95% CI 0.82-3.49, HR for subtotal/total VA compared with those with healing 2.16, 95% CI 1.06-4.41).

CONCLUSIONS:
Persistent VA on follow-up biopsy is predictive of hip fracture risk. The association between persistent VA and hip fractures, but not fractures overall, implies that thinner sc tissue and fall or trauma may be mechanisms by which persistent VA confers an increased fracture risk.

Resource: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Feb
 
Autor:
Lebwohl, B; Michaëlsson, K; Green, P; et al.;
Jahr:
2014 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

Glutenase ALV003 Attenuates Gluten-Induced Mucosal Injury in Patients With Celiac Disease

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS
Gluten ingestion leads to small intestinal mucosal injury in patients with celiac disease, necessitating strict life-long exclusion of dietary gluten. Despite adherence to a glutenfree diet, many patients remain symptomatic and still have small intestinal inflammation. In this case, nondietary therapies are needed. We investigated the ability of ALV003, a mixture of 2 recombinant gluten-specific proteases given orally, to protect patients with celiac disease from gluten-inducedmucosal injury in a phase 2 trial.

METHODS
We established the optimal daily dose of gluten to be used in a 6-week challenge study. Then, in the intervention study, adults with biopsy-proven celiac disease were randomly assigned to groups given ALV003 (n ¼ 20) or placebo (n ¼ 21) together with the daily gluten challenge. Duodenal biopsies were collected at baseline and after gluten challenge. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth and densities of intraepithelial lymphocytes were the primary end points.

RESULTS
A daily dose of 2g gluten was selected for the intervention study. Sixteen patients given ALV003 and 18 given placebo were eligible for efficacy evaluation. Biopsies from subjects in the placebo group showed evidence of mucosal injury after gluten challenge (mean villus height to crypt depth ratio changed from 2.8 before challenge to 2.0 afterward; P ¼ .0007; density of CD3þ intraepithelial lymphocytes changed from 61 to 91 cells/mm after challenge; P ¼ .0003). However, no significant mucosal deterioration was observed in biopsies from the ALV003 group. Between groups, morphologic changes and CD3þ intraepithelial lymphocyte counts differed significantly from baseline to week 6 (P ¼ .0133 and P ¼ .0123, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in symptoms between groups.

CONCLUSIONS
Based on a phase 2 trial, the glutenase ALV003 appears to attenuate gluten-induced small intestinal mucosal injury in patients with celiac disease in the context of an everyday gluten-free diet containing daily up to 2 g gluten.

Resource: Gastroenterology 2014;146:1649–1658

Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Katri Kaukinen, Kaija Laurila, Pekka Vuotikka, Olli-Pekka Koivurova, Tiina Kärjä-Lahdensuu, Annette Marcantonio, Daniel C. Adelman, and Markku Mäki
Jahr:
2014 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

Effect of gluten free diet on immune response to gliadin in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring in a few hours/days after gluten and/or other wheat protein ingestion and rapidly improving after exclusion of potential dietary triggers. There are no established laboratory markers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, although a high prevalence of first generation anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class has been reported in this condition. This study was designed to characterize the effect of the gluten-free diet on anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

METHODS:
Anti-gliadin antibodies of both IgG and IgA classes were assayed by ELISA in 44 non-celiac gluten sensitivity and 40 celiac disease patients after 6 months of gluten-free diet.

RESULTS:
The majority of non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (93.2%) showed the disappearance of anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class after 6 months of gluten-free diet; in contrast, 16/40 (40%) of celiac patients displayed the persistence of these antibodies after gluten withdrawal. In non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients anti-gliadin antibodies IgG persistence after gluten withdrawal was significantly correlated with the low compliance to gluten-free diet and a mild clinical response.

CONCLUSIONS:
Anti-gliadin antibodies of the IgG class disappear in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity reflecting a strict compliance to the gluten-free diet and a good clinical response to gluten withdrawal.

Resource: BMC Gastroenterol. 2014 Feb 13

Caio G, Volta U, Tovoli F, De Giorgio R
Jahr:
2014 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

Follow-up of pediatric celiac disease: value of antibodies in predicting mucosal healing, a prospective cohort study

Abstract

Background: In diagnosing celiac disease (CD), serological tests are highly valuable. However, their role in following up children with CD after prescription of a gluten-free diet is unclear. This study aimed to compare the performance of antibody tests in predicting small-intestinal mucosal status in diagnosis vs. follow-up of pediatric CD.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study at a tertiary-care center. 148 children underwent esophohagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies either for symptoms ± positive CD antibodies (group A; n = 95) or following up CD diagnosed ≥ 1 year before study enrollment (group B; n = 53). Using biopsy (Marsh ≥ 2) as the criterion standard, areas under ROC curves (AUCs) and likelihood-ratios were calculated to estimate the performance of antibody tests against tissue transglutaminase (TG2), deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) and endomysium (EMA).

Results: AUCs were higher when tests were used for CD diagnosis vs. follow-up: 1 vs. 0.86 (P = 0.100) for TG2-IgA, 0.85 vs. 0.74 (P = 0.421) for TG2-IgG, 0.97 vs. 0.61 (P = 0.004) for DPG-IgA, and 0.99 vs. 0.88 (P = 0.053) for DPG-IgG, respectively. Empirical power was 85% for the DPG-IgA comparison, and on average 33% (range 13–43) for the non-significant comparisons. Among group B children, 88.7% showed mucosal healing (median 2.2 years after primary diagnosis). Only the negative likelihood-ratio of EMA was low enough (0.097) to effectively rule out persistent mucosal injury. However, out of 12 EMA-positive children with mucosal healing, 9 subsequently turned EMA-negative.

Conclusions: Among the CD antibodies examined, negative EMA most reliably predict mucosal healing. In general, however, antibody tests, especially DPG-IgA, are of limited value in predicting the mucosal status in the early years post-diagnosis but may be sufficient after a longer period of time.

Resource: BMC Gastroenterology 2014, 14:28
 
Autor:
Vécsei, E; Steinwendner, St; Kogler, H; et al.;
Jahr:
2014 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

Early feeding and risk of celiac disease in a prospective birth cohort

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
Timing of gluten introduction has been associated with the risk of celiac disease (CD) in children, but the optimal time window is unknown. We aimed to study the effect of age of gluten introduction on the risk of CD, adjusting for continued breastfeeding.

METHODS:
In The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a prospective birth cohort including 107,000 children, CD was identified by questionnaires and by linkage to the Norwegian Patient Register. Gluten introduction was reported monthly from 0 to 6 months of age, and breastfeeding from 0 to 18 months.

RESULTS:
After exclusion of cases with insufficient information, 324 children with CD in a cohort of 82,167 were used in the analyses. Gluten was introduced before or at 4 months in 8.0%, 5 to 6 months in 45.3%, and after 6 months in 46.6%, whereas continued breastfeeding was stable at ≈ 78% at 6 months age. CD was diagnosed in 3.68/1000 of the infants with gluten introduction at 5 to 6 months compared with 4.15/1000 with late and 4.24/1000 with early gluten introduction. After adjustment for the child's age and gender, breastfeeding, and maternal CD, delayed gluten introduction was associated with an increased risk of CD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.65], P = .045). Breastfeeding >12 months was also associated with increased risk (adjusted odds ratio, 1.49 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.21], P = .046).

CONCLUSIONS:
We found an increased risk of CD in children introduced to gluten after 6 months and a higher risk in children breastfed after 12 months age.

Resource: Pediatrics. 2013 Nov;132(5):e1202-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1752. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Størdal K, White RA, Eggesbø M.
Jahr:
2014 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

A Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Abstract

Background & Aims: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) often is used to manage functional gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), yet there is limited evidence of its efficacy, compared with a normal Western diet. We investigated the effects of a diet low in FODMAPs compared with an Australian diet, in a randomized, controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial of patients with IBS.

Methods: In a study of 30 patients with IBS and 8 healthy individuals (controls, matched for demographics and diet), we collected dietary data from subjects for 1 habitual week. Participants then randomly were assigned to groups that received 21 days of either a diet low in FODMAPs or a typical Australian diet, followed by a washout period of at least 21 days, before crossing over to the alternate diet. Daily symptoms were rated using a 0- to 100-mm visual analogue scale. Almost all food was provided during the interventional diet periods, with a goal of less than 0.5 g intake of FODMAPs per meal for the low-FODMAP diet. All stools were collected from days 17–21 and assessed for frequency, weight, water content, and King's Stool Chart rating.

Results: Subjects with IBS had lower overall gastrointestinal symptom scores (22.8; 95% confidence interval, 16.7–28.8 mm) while on a diet low in FODMAPs, compared with the Australian diet (44.9; 95% confidence interval, 36.6–53.1 mm; P < .001) and the subjects' habitual diet. Bloating, pain, and passage of wind also were reduced while IBS patients were on the low-FODMAP diet. Symptoms were minimal and unaltered by either diet among controls. Patients of all IBS subtypes had greater satisfaction with stool consistency while on the low-FODMAP diet, but diarrhea-predominant IBS was the only subtype with altered fecal frequency and King's Stool Chart scores.

Conclusions: In a controlled, cross-over study of patients with IBS, a diet low in FODMAPs effectively reduced functional gastrointestinal symptoms. This high-quality evidence supports its use as a first-line therapy.

Resource: Gastroenterology Volume 146, Issue 1 , Pages 67-75.e5, January 2014

Emma P. Halmos, Victoria A. Power, Susan J. Shepherd, Peter R. Gibson, Jane G. Muir
Jahr:
2014 Jänner
Sprachen:
English;

Celiac disease: diagnosis and management.

Abstract

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. It is triggered by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a storage protein in wheat, rye, and barley, which are staples in many American diets. Celiac disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa, which leads to atrophy of the small intestinal villi and subsequent malabsorption. The condition may develop at any age. Intestinal manifestations include diarrhea and weight loss. Common extraintestinal manifestations include iron deficiency anemia, decreased bone mineral density, and neuropathy. Most cases of celiac disease are diagnosed in persons with extraintestinal manifestations. The presence of dermatitis herpetiformis is pathognomonic for celiac disease. Diagnosis is supported by a positive tissue transglutaminase serologic test but, in general, should be confirmed by a small bowel biopsy showing the characteristic histology associated with celiac disease. The presence of human leukocyte antigen alleles DQ2, DQ8, or both is essential for the development of celiac disease, and can be a useful genetic test in select instances. Treatment of celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Dietary education should focus on identifying hidden sources of gluten, planning balanced meals, reading labels, food shopping, dining out, and dining during travel. About 5% of patients with celiac disease are refractory to a gluten-free diet. These patients should be referred to a gastroenterologist for reconsideration of the diagnosis or for aggressive treatment of refractory celiac disease, which may involve corticosteroids and immunomodulators.

Resource: Am Fam Physician. 2014 Jan 15;89(2):99-105.
 
Autor:
Pelkowski, T; Viera, A;
Jahr:
2014 Jänner
Sprachen:
English;

Usefulness of Symptoms to Screen for Celiac Disease

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the frequency of symptoms and associated conditions among screening-detected celiac disease (CD) cases and non-CD children and to evaluate questionnaire-based case-finding targeting the general population.

METHODS:
In a population-based CD screening of 12-year-olds, children and their parents completed questionnaires on CD-associated symptoms and conditions before knowledge of CD status. Questionnaire data for those who had their CD detected in the screening (n = 153) were compared with those of children with normal levels of CD markers (n = 7016). Hypothetical case-finding strategies were also evaluated. Questionnaires were returned by 7054 (98%) of the children and by 6294 (88%) of their parents.

RESULTS:
Symptoms were as common among screening-detected CD cases as among non-CD children. The frequency of children with screening-detected CD was similar when comparing the groups with and without any CD-related symptoms (2.1% vs 2.1%; P = .930) or CD-associated conditions (3.6% vs 2.1%; P = .07). Case-finding by asking for CD-associated symptoms and/or conditions would have identified 52 cases (38% of all cases) at a cost of analyzing blood samples for 2282 children (37%) in the study population.

CONCLUSIONS:
The current recommended guidelines for finding undiagnosed CD cases, so-called active case-finding, fail to identify the majority of previously undiagnosed cases if applied in the general population of Swedish 12-year-olds. Our results warrant further studies on the effectiveness of CD case-finding in the pediatric population, both at the clinical and population-based levels.

Resource: Pediatrics. 2014 Feb;133(2):211-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-3765. Epub 2014 Jan 13
 
Autor:
Rosén, A; Sandström, O; Carlsson, A; et al.;
Jahr:
2014 Jänner
Sprachen:
English;

Introduction of oats in the diet of individuals with celiac disease: a systematic review.

Abstract

Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet for life. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature on the safety of pure oats for individuals with celiac disease, which historically has been subject to debate. Limitations identified within the scientific database include: limited data on long-term consumption, limited numbers of participants in challenge studies, and limited reporting about the reasons for withdrawals from study protocols. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that a small number of individuals with celiac disease may be intolerant to pure oats and some evidence from in vitro studies suggests that an immunological response to oat avenins can occur in the absence of clinical manifestations of celiac disease as well as suggesting that oat cultivars vary in toxicity. Based on the majority of the evidence provided in the scientific database, and despite the limitations, Health Canada and the Canadian Celiac Association (CCA) concluded that the majority of people with celiac disease can tolerate moderate amounts of pure oats. The incorporation of oats into a gluten-free diet provides high fiber and vitamin B content, increased palatability, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. However, it is recommended that individuals with celiac disease should have both initial and long-term assessments by a health professional when introducing pure oats into a gluten-free diet.

Resource: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research Volume 57, Pages 235-285 (2009)

Pulido OM, Gillespie Z, Zarkadas M, Dubois S, Vavasour E, Rashid M, Switzer C, Godefroy SB
 
Jahr:
2009 Oktober
Sprachen:
English;

Oats do not induce systemic or mucosal autoantibody response in children with coeliac disease

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
A gluten-free diet omitting wheat, rye, and barley is the only effective treatment for coeliac disease. The necessity of excluding oats from the diet has remained controversial. We studied the toxicity of oats in children with coeliac disease during a 2-year follow-up by investigating jejunal transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-targeted IgA-class autoantibody deposits, a potentially more sensitive disease marker than serum antibodies or conventional histology.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Twenty-three coeliac children in remission were randomized to undergo oat or gluten challenge with wheat, rye, barley, and oats. When jejunal histological relapse was evident after gluten challenge, patients excluded wheat, rye, and barley but continued with oats. Mucosal morphology and TG2-targeted autoantibody deposits were studied in jejunal biopsies taken at baseline and after 6 and 24 months. Furthermore, serum IgA-class TG2 antibodies were measured.

RESULTS:
At baseline, serum TG2 antibodies were negative in all 23 patients, but 7 of them had minor mucosal deposits. In the oats group, there was no significant change in the intensity of the deposits within 2 years. In contrast, during the gluten challenge, the intensity of the deposits clearly increased and decreased again when wheat, rye, and barley were excluded but consumption of oats was continued; this was in line with serum autoantibodies. The intensity of the mucosal deposits correlated well with both villous morphology and serum autoantibody levels.

CONCLUSIONS:
Consumption of oats does not induce TG2 autoantibody production at mucosal level in children with coeliac disease. Measurement of small-intestinal mucosal autoantibody deposits is suitable for monitoring treatment in coeliac patients.

Resource: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009 May;48(5):559-65.

Koskinen O, Villanen M, Korponay-Szabo I, Lindfors K, Mäki M, Kaukinen K
 
Jahr:
2009 Mai
Sprachen:
English;

Can oats be taken in a gluten-free diet? A systematic review

Abstract

Objective: There has long been doubt about the need to exclude oats from a gluten-free diet (GFD). The objective of this study was to review the literature in order to arrive at a firm recommendation.

Material and methods: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2006 using the terms “oats” and “coeliac disease”.

Results: Twenty relevant studies were found and presented. Early studies were small and uncontrolled and mostly indirect. In 10 studies involving 165 patients, only 1 patient was shown to have histological damage as a result of consuming oats.

Conclusions: Coeliac patients can, to some advantage, include oats in a GFD although there may be the occasional patient who is also oats sensitive. Previous conflicting results may have been partly due to contamination of oats by wheat. Lest contamination is present and exceeds the safe threshold, we recommend that coeliac patients should only add oats to their GFD when they are established on a conventional GFD, and stop eating oats if they develop any symptoms.

Resource: Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007 Feb;42(2):171-8

Klara Garsed and Brian B. Scott, MD
 
Jahr:
2007 Februar
Sprachen:
English;

Prospective Study of Clinical and Histological Safety of Pure and Uncontaminated Canadian Oats in the Management of Celiac Disease

ABSTRACT

Background:
Pure oats are safe for most patients with celiac disease, but concerns regarding contamination by other grains limit their consumption. The Canadian Celiac Association recently released guidelines governing the production of pure oats. The objective was to test the safety of a product manufactured under these guidelines.

Methods:
Fifteen adults with established, biopsy-confirmed celiac disease of =1 year duration were challenged with 350 g/wk of pure oats for 12 weeks. Symptom scores, weight, hemoglobin, ferritin, albumin, and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, and 12. Duodenal biopsies were obtained before and after oat challenge and assessed based on the modified Marsh–Oberhuber score. Compliance with a gluten-free diet was monitored with random food diaries.

Results:
Fifteen patients completed the study and were analyzed in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. There were no significant changes in symptom scores, weight, hemoglobin, ferritin, or albumin during oat consumption. The tTG remained negative in all patients, and the histology scores did not significantly change during oat challenge. The only relapse occurred in a patient who became noncompliant with her gluten-free diet. Conclusion: The findings support the safety of pure, uncontaminated oats manufactured under Canadian Celiac Association guidelines for patients with celiac disease.

Resource: JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr July 2011 vol. 35 no. 4 459-464

Michael Sai Lai Sey, MD, Jeremy Parfitt, MD, FRCPC, Jamie Gregor, MD, FRCPC
 
Jahr:
2006 Oktober
Sprachen:
English;

Coeliac disease and oats: a systematic review

Abstract

A systematic review of the literature related to the inclusion of oats in the gluten-free diet for patients with coeliac disease to assess whether oats can be recommended. A computerised literature review of multiple databases was carried out, identifying 17 primary studies, 6 of which met the criteria for inclusion in this review. None of the six studies found any significant difference in the serology between the oats and control groups. Two studies, however, identified a significant difference (p<0.001; p=0.039) in intraepithelial lymphocyte counts between the oats and control groups. Oats can be symptomatically tolerated by most patients with coeliac disease; however, the long-term effects of a diet containing oats remain unknown. Patients with coeliac disease wishing to consume a diet containing oats should therefore receive regular follow-up, including small bowel biopsy at a specialist clinic for life.

Resource: Postgrad Med J. Oct 2006; 82(972): 672–678.

N Y Haboubi, S Taylor, and S Jones
 
Jahr:
2006 Oktober
Sprachen:
English;